An asphalt driveway is solid and durable and should last for many years before it needs major repair work or outright replacement. However, this doesn't mean an asphalt driveway is indestructible!
The cost of replacing an asphalt driveway will depend on the type of asphalt you choose, the thickness of your new pavement, and if you need to have the current driveway torn up and replaced versus merely having a new layer of asphalt poured.
To better understand your potential costs for a new asphalt driveway, it's useful first to note some information about asphalt itself, as well as how it gets damaged. You can then better understand your options for replacing a residential asphalt driveway and know what to discuss with a paving contractor.
Like concrete, asphalt is made from a mixture of cement and aggregates. The adhesive used for asphalt is called bitumen, which is a dark, sticky substance derived from crude oil. This bitumen is heated and mixed with fine aggregate, usually sand or crushed rock.
While it's still warm and pliable, this bitumen mixture is poured onto a layer or foundation of thicker aggregates, usually made from crushed rock or gravel, and then rolled or pressed into place. As the bitumen mixture cools, it hardens and adheres to the aggregates under it, and becomes asphalt.
As with concrete, asphalt mixtures are all made individually. Some batches might have a higher concentration of a fine, sandy aggregate, which creates a smooth blacktop surface, and which is preferred for residential driveways.
Other asphalt batches are made with thicker aggregates or a higher concentration of crushed rock and gravel. This asphalt creates a bumpy surface that offers more traction. Many public roads are built with this thicker aggregate mixture, for safer driving and to reduce the need for salting icy or snowy roads in wintertime.
One of the most common causes of asphalt damage is an oil leak from your vehicle, as motor oil will break down the petroleum used to create bitumen. When this happens, asphalt loses its adhesion and chips or holes then form.
Other common causes of asphalt damage include:
A typical asphalt driveway might last 20 or 25 years, depending on how well you care for the material. Regular seal coating, as recommended by the installer, will protect the asphalt surface and prolong its life, and help to avoid everyday chips and cracks.
Note, too, that the original installation of the asphalt will affect its overall lifespan. A cheap, thin layer of rocks or gravel for the foundation of asphalt, or not pressing the new road into place correctly, can allow the blacktop to shift and settle so that cracks then form. Investing in a thicker base aggregate made of high-quality gravel can prolong the life of your asphalt driveway and keep its surface in good repair.
Even if your home's asphalt driveway is severely damaged, you may not need to replace it, but can often have the material patched or resurfaced. Your options will depend on the driveway's age and the extent of the damage to its surface.
Over the years, consistent freeze-thaw cycles and the daily wear and tear suffered by an asphalt driveway will show up as small cracks, and patchy chunks that pull away from the surface of the asphalt. If these cracks or missing pieces are small, the deeper layers of the pavement are probably still durable and intact. You can have this damaged patched and have the driveway seal coated, for added protection.
Once those cracks are a few inches deep, a simple patch job won't keep the material strong enough for everyday use. You don't necessarily need to have the driveway torn up and replaced, but can often have the asphalt resurfaced, or a new layer of asphalt poured over the old and then rolled or pressed into place.
Whether or not you can have your current driveway resurfaced versus replaced will depend on the thickness of the asphalt, and the extent of its overall damage. After a few years, asphalt will start to degrade, so that it can't provide a strong enough foundation for additional layers. Trying to press a new coat of blacktop into such a degraded driveway would then be a waste of time and money.
Also, the foundation aggregate used to support asphalt can also only withstand so much weight. Adding too many layers of blacktop on top of this aggregate can result in a driveway that sinks, sags, or otherwise shifts out of place. Once the layers of your blacktop driveway reach a certain thickness, the asphalt will then need to be removed so that new aggregate and new asphalt can be installed.
If your property has drainage issues that have caused damage to the asphalt driveway, it can also be pointless to add a new layer of asphalt over the old! Your driveway may need to be torn out entirely so that your property can be graded, or so that a drainage system can be installed, to protect your new blacktop from this same water damage.
If your home's blacktop driveway is severely damaged, you may even want to consider having an entirely new type of asphalt driveway installed. If you live in a rainy climate, for example, a smoother asphalt might allow more water to run off the blacktop surface. Some asphalt mixtures are especially porous so that standing water will drain through the layers of blacktop, protecting its surface from water damage.
Concrete has its advantages, but homeowners prefer asphalt for many reasons. If you do need to have your home's asphalt driveway torn out completely, note a few reasons why you might stick with asphalt as a replacement.
One of the most apparent advantages of asphalt over concrete is the cost of installation and repairs, as resurfacing blacktop is often much cheaper than repairing a concrete driveway. Choosing asphalt rather than concrete can then be the most long-term economic choice.
Even though asphalt is typically more affordable than concrete, you may be wondering how to save money on its installation, especially if you need to have your old driveway torn out before having a new one installed. To ensure you're saving the most on your new blacktop driveway, note a few things to discuss with your paving contractor.